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Tooth loss (adults)

Adult tooth loss by population characteristics:

Adult tooth loss by health behavior and disease:


Tooth loss affects overall health and quality of life

Teeth play an important role in speech, eating ability, facial appearance and quality of life. Losing a tooth can cause surrounding teeth to shift and bacteria to accumulate under the gum line, resulting in further gum disease and loss of bone and tissue. Significant bone and tissue loss leads to changes in facial appearance including facial shortening and protrusion of the upper lip and chin.

Studies have found that complete tooth loss (edentulism) is associated with poor nutrition due to the inability to eat certain foods, especially healthful fruits and vegetables that contain fiber, vitamin C and carotene, as well as higher consumption of unhealthy foods containing cholesterol and saturated fats. This may lead to increased obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gastrointestinal disease, kidney disease, cancer, disability and death. Poor oral-health-related quality of life is also seen among those with complete tooth loss, including decreased self-esteem and decline in psychosocial well-being. Individuals may avoid participation in social activities because they are embarrassed to speak, smile, or eat in front of others, leading to isolation.

Additionally, studies of denture use find an increased risk of oral-mucosal disorders such as angular chelitis (inflammation and red swollen patches at the corners of the mouth), oral thrush (oral fungal infection), and traumatic ulcers.


Gum disease is the leading cause of tooth loss

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define “functional dentition” as having a minimum of 20 out of the 28 to 32 possible teeth for the ability to speak and socialize without discomfort or the need for dentures.

Gum disease is the leading cause of the loss of permanent, natural teeth. Injuries and oral-dental trauma may also cause tooth loss. Risk factors for tooth loss include poor oral hygiene, dry mouth, hormonal changes, some prescription medications, and tobacco use. Many of these risk factors are associated with aging and disability (e.g. poor oral hygiene, changes in hormones, prescription medication use), though tooth loss is preventable in almost all cases.


Minnesota older adults ages 65 years and older are more likely to have tooth loss, however 3 in 10 adults ages 18 to 64 years have partial tooth loss

Tooth loss by age in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota tooth loss

18 to 64 years

65 years and older

Number of adults with complete tooth loss

162

407

Percent of adults with complete tooth loss

1.7%

9.5%

95% Confidence Interval

1.4 to 1.9

8.6 to 10.3

Number of adults with partial tooth loss

2,694

2,219

Percent of adults with partial tooth loss

27.5%

51.6%

95% Confidence Interval

26.6 to 28.4

50.1 to 53.1

Number of adults with no tooth loss

6,946

1,675

Percent of adults with no tooth loss

70.9%

38.9%

95% Confidence Interval

70.0 to 71.8

37.5 to 40.4

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection. Total sample size = (18 to 64 years): 9,897 and (65 years and older): 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within age groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

Ages 65 and older: In 2014, older adults ages 65 years and older were 6.0 times more likely to have complete tooth loss and 1.9 times more likely to have partial tooth loss compared to adults 18 to 64 years. In the United States older adults ages 65 years and older were 4.6 times more likely to have complete tooth loss and 1.6 times more likely to have partial tooth loss compared to adults 18 to 64 years.

Ages 18 to 64 year olds: In 2014, almost 3 in 10 Minnesota adults had partial tooth loss. In the United States, 4 in 10 adults ages 18 to 64 years had partial tooth loss. Under three-quarters of adults 18 to 64 years (71 percent) had no tooth loss. In the United States, 61 percent of adults 18 to 64 years had no tooth loss.


Almost 1 in 10 Minnesota older adults have complete tooth loss

In 2014, about 10 percent of Minnesota adults reported having all their natural, permanent teeth removed due to tooth decay, infection, or gum disease, compared to 15 percent of U.S. older adults.

1 out of every 10
Minnesota older adults (65 years and older) (9.5%)

Has complete tooth loss
2014


More female than male older adults in Minnesota have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by sex in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Male

Female

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss

138

269

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss

7.7%

10.7%

95% Confidence Interval

6.5 to 8.9

9.5 to 11.9

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss

977

1,242

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss

54.5%

49.5%

95% Confidence Interval

52.2 to 56.8

47.5 to 51.5

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

677

998

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

37.8%

39.8%

95% Confidence Interval

35.5 to 40.0

37.9 to 41.7

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection. Older adult sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within sex groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota female older adults were 1.4 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to male older adults. In the United States, female older adults are 1.1 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to male older adults.


U.S. African American or Black older adults were more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by race and ethnicity in the U.S., 2014

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

United States

White

African American or Black

Hispanic/Latino

Other race

Multi-race

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

17,947

2,007

936

644

372

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

14.0%

22.5%

14.5%

16.7%

17.8%

95% Confidence Interval

13.8 to 14.2

21.7 to 23.4

13.6 to 15.3

15.5 to 17.9

16.2 to 19.5

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

71,094

5,578

3,898

2,218

1,210

Percent older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

55.4%

62.6%

60.3%

57.4%

58.0%

95% Confidence Interval

55.2 to 55.7

61.6 to 63.6

59.1 to 61.5

55.9 to 59.0

55.9 to 60.1

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

39,194

1,321

1,627

999

504

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

30.6%

14.8%

25.2%

25.9%

24.2%

95% Confidence Interval

30.3 to 30.8

14.1 to 15.6

24.1 to 26.2

24.5 to 27.3

22.3 to 26.0

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection. Total US sample size = 464,664. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within race and ethnicity groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. Other race refers to non-Hispanic/Latino of another race not reported on this chart (e.g. Asian Indian, Chinese, Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native). Multi-race refers to non-Hispanic/Latino of more than one race not reported on this chart (e.g. Asian Indian, Chinese, Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native). See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota tooth loss rates by race and ethnicity could not be determined due to small sample sizes. In the United States, African American or Black older adults were 1.6 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to White older adults.


Minnesota older adults with a household income of less than $35K are more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by household income in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Less than $35K (thousand dollars)

$35K (thousand dollars) or more

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

248

81

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

16.1%

4.2%

95% Confidence Interval

14.2 to 17.9

3.2 to 5.1

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

836

946

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

54.1%

49.2%

95% Confidence Interval

51.6 to 56.6

47.0 to 51.5

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

461

905

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

29.8%

46.6%

95% Confidence Interval

27.6 to 32.1

44.4 to 48.8

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection. Total sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within income groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota older adults with a household income less than $35K were 4.0 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults with a household income of $35K or more.

In 2014, U.S. older adults with a household income less than $35K were 3.4 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults with a household income of $35K or more.


Minnesota older adults with less than a college degree have higher rates of complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by education level in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Less than High School (HS)

HS diploma or general educational development

Some post HS

College graduate

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

80

201

92

33

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

33.3%

14.6%

7.5%

2.3%

95% Confidence Interval

27.4 to 39.3

12.7 to 16.5

6.0 to 9.0

1.5 to 3.1

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

114

762

677

659

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

47.5%

55.3%

55.2%

45.9%

95% Confidence Interval

41.2 to 53.8

52.7 to 57.9

52.4 to 58.0

48.3 to 48.5

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

46

415

458

744

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

19.2%

30.1%

37.3%

51.8%

95% Confidence Interval

14.2 to 24.1

27.7 to 32.5

34.6 to 40.0

49.2 to 54.4

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection. Older adult sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within education groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. Unstable rates = cell sample size less than 50; use caution when interpreting. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, 13 percent of Minnesota older adults with less than a college degree had complete tooth loss compared to 2 percent of older adults with a college degree.

In 2014, U.S. older adults with less than a high school degree were 7.4 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults with a college degree.


Minnesota older adults with disabilities are more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by disability in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Disability

No disability

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

184

223

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

15.4%

7.2%

95% Confidence Interval

13.4 to 17.5

6.3 to 8.1

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

665

1,554

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

55.8%

50.0%

95% Confidence Interval

53.0 to 58.7

48.2 to 51.7

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

342

1,333

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

28.7%

42.9%

95% Confidence Interval

26.1 to 31.3

41.1 to 44.6

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection and disability status (vision, cognitive, mobility, self-care and/or limitation). Older adult sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within disability status groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota older adults with a disability were 2.1 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults without a disability.

In 2014, U.S. older adults with a disability were 2.0 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults without a disability.


Minnesota older adults who did not visit a dentist or dental clinic within the past year were more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by dental visit in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Past year dental visit

No past year dental visit

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

103

288

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

3.1%

30.1%

95% Confidence Interval

2.5 to 3.7

27.2 to 33.0

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

1,771

437

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

53.7%

45.6%

95% Confidence Interval

52.0 to 55.4

42.5 to 48.8

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

1,425

233

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

43.2%

24.2%

95% Confidence Interval

41.5 to 44.9

21.6 to 27.0

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection and past year dental visit. Older adults sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within disability status groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota older adults who reported not visiting a dentist or dental clinic within the past year were 9.7 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults who reported having at least one past year dental visit.

In 2014, U.S. older adults who reported not visiting a dentist or dental clinic within the past year were 8.7 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults who reported having at least one past year dental visit.


Minnesota older adults who are current smokers are more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by smoking status in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Current smoker

Former smoker

Never smoker

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

70

207

118

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

21.9%

11.7%

5.8%

95% Confidence Interval

17.4 to 26.5

10.2 to 13.2

4.7 to 6.8

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

182

961

995

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

57.1%

54.2%

48.5%

95% Confidence Interval

51.6 to 62.5

51.9 to 56.5

46.3 to 50.7

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

67

605

938

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

21.0%

34.1%

45.7%

95% Confidence Interval

16.5 to 25.5

31.9 to 36.3

43.6 to 47.9

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection and smoking status (current, former, or never). Current smokers are defined as having smoked at least 100 packs of cigarettes in their entire life and now smokes every day or some days. Former smokers are defined as having smoked at least 100 packs of cigarettes in their entire life, but does not current smoke. Never smokers are defined as not having smoked at least 100 packs of cigarettes in their entire life and does not currently smoke. Older adult sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within smoking status groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota older adult current smokers were 3.8 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adult never smokers.

In 2014, U.S. older adult current smokers were 3.0 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adult never smokers.

Smokers are at increased risk for tooth decay, infections, periodontal disease (gum infection that destroys bone that leads to tooth loss) and oral and pharyngeal (mouth and throat) cancers. Regular visits to the dentist are important for early detection and treatment of these oral diseases.


Minnesota older adults with diabetes are more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by diabetes status in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Diabetes

No diabetes

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

111

288

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

13.7%

8.4%

95% Confidence Interval

11.3 to 16.0

7.5 to 9.3

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

464

1,728

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

57.1%

50.5%

95% Confidence Interval

53.7 to 60.5

48.8 to 52.2

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

238

1,405

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

29.3%

41.1%

95% Confidence Interval

26.1 to 32.4

39.4 to 42.7

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection and a diagnosis of diabetes. Older adult sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within diabetes status groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

In 2014, Minnesota older adults with diabetes were 1.6 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults without diabetes.

In 2014, U.S. older adults with diabetes were 1.5 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults without diabetes.

People with uncontrolled diabetes have decreased saliva flow, increased thickening of blood vessels, and consistently higher blood sugar that weakens the body’s defense against bacterial infections. As a result, people with uncontrolled diabetes experience an increased risk of dry mouth, gum inflammation, thrush (fungal infection of the mouth and tongue) and periodontal disease (gum infection that destroys bone that leads to tooth loss).


Minnesota older adults with cardiovascular disease are more likely to have complete tooth loss

Tooth loss by cardiovascular disease in Minnesota, 2014

Source: Minnesota Department of Health. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Minnesota

Cardiovascular disease

No cardiovascular disease

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

126

281

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with complete tooth loss (all teeth)

14.8%

8.2%

95% Confidence Interval

12.4 to 17.1

7.2 to 9.1

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

468

1,751

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with partial tooth loss (1 to 31 teeth)

54.8%

50.8%

95% Confidence Interval

51.5 to 58.1

49.1 to 52.5

Number of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

260

1,415

Percent of older adults (65 years and older) with no tooth loss

30.4%

41.1%

95% Confidence Interval

27.4 to 33.5

39.4 to 42.7

Data is based on survey respondent report of tooth loss due to tooth decay, gum disease or infection and a diagnosis of diagnosis of angina, coronary artery disease, heart attack or stroke. Older adult sample size = 4,527. Data is weighted to reflect population characteristics. This chart represents the percent of older adults with tooth loss (complete, partial, none) within cardiovascular disease status groups (row percentages). No loss means the respondent has all their natural permanent teeth (28 to 32, with wisdom teeth). Partial loss means the respondent has at least one natural, permanent tooth and up to 31 teeth. Complete loss means the respondent has lost all of their natural, permanent teeth. See About the Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for more information.

Cardiovascular disease (heart disease) is defined as ever being diagnosed with angina, coronary artery disease, heart attack or stroke. In 2014, Minnesota older adults with cardiovascular disease were 1.8 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults without cardiovascular disease.

In 2014, U.S. older adults with cardiovascular disease were 1.7 times more likely to have complete tooth loss compared to older adults without cardiovascular disease.

Inflammation is a shared risk factor of both cardiovascular disease and periodontal disease (gum infection that destroys bone that leads to tooth loss). Reducing inflammation by preventing or treating tooth decay and gum disease may prevent tooth loss and improve cardiovascular health.